The Dietary Guidelines for Americans were first released in 1980, and since that time they have provided science-based advice on promoting health and reducing risk of major chronic diseases through a healthy* diet and regular physical activity. Early editions of the Dietary Guidelines focused specifically on healthy members of the public, but more recent editions also have included those who are at increased risk of chronic disease. Future editions will continue to evolve to address public health concerns and the nutrition needs of specific populations. For example, the Dietary Guidelines have traditionally targeted the general public older than age 2 years, but as data continue to accumulate regarding the importance of dietary intake during gestation and from birth on, a Federal initiative has been established to develop comprehensive guidance for infants and toddlers from birth to 24 months and women who are pregnant. By 2020, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include these important populations comprehensively.