In 2014, there were 67,000 information security incidents reported for systems supporting the federal government, an increase of 1,121% since 2006, according to US-CERT.  The recent breaches exposed millions of personnel records and security-clearance files.  APTs have reached an unprecedented level of savvy and persistence.  Are we in the penultimate stages of global cyber warfare? GAO has acknowledged the government is often ill-equipped to prevent and defend against threats.  Challenges to an effective defence are poor oversight of contractors, ineffective response to incidents, absence of comprehensive cyber policies, and a general lack of consistency throughout the government in implementing protocols and combating threats.