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. https://www.aclu.org/blog/racial-justice/race-and-criminal-justice/supreme-court-rightly-cited-black-codes-ruling-against
blog article
THE SUPREME COURT RIGHTLY CITED THE BLACK CODES IN RULING AGAINST EXCESSIVE FINES, FEES, AND FORFEITURES
Last week, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a rare unanimous ruling in Timbs v. Indiana, holding for the first time that the Eighth Amendment’s Excessive Fines Clause applies to state and local governments not just federal authorities. The fact that this landmark decision is unanimous is itself remarkable. But it bears noting that in separate opinions, both Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Justice Clarence Thomas acknowledge the historical context for the modern-day protection against excessive fines, fees, and forfeitures: southern states’ abuse of fines to enforce white supremacy in the years following the Civil War. NUSRAT CHOUDHURY READ MORE